20 концепций Ethereum

Самые важные термины для понимания Ethereum
Ethereum Whitepaper
Here is a brief summary to get an idea
A block contains a chain identifier. It must precede it if the block is to be considered valid.
The state
The balances and values, collectively known as THE STATE, are maintained in a Merkle tree on the node's computer, separated from the blockchain.
Nodes communication and propagation
Each node communicates with a small subset of the network (its peers).
Miners are nodes that maintain a list of all of these new transactions and use them to create new blocks, which they then send to the rest of the network.
When a node receives a block, it checks the validity of the block and of all the transactions.

If valid, the node adds the block and transactions to the blockchain.

Being the network is non-hierarchical, it may receive competing blocks, which may form competing chains
"The chain with the most blocks at any given time is the canonical chain".

This is called the LONGEST-CHAIN rule.

This rule achieves consensus: miners don't want to expend their computational work trying to add blocks to a chain that will be abandoned by the network.
Proof of Work
Ethereum currently uses Proof of Work as a consensus
Proof of Stake
This is the new consensus that will be used by Ethereum after the Merge.
A Transaction is a cryptographically signed instruction from accounts.
Ethereum is not a network, but a protocol that can be implemented to create different networks.
Ether (ETH)
Ether (ETH) is the cryptocurrency generated by the Ethereum protocol as a reward to miners in a proof-of-work system for adding blocks to the blockchain.
2 account types::
- user accounts
- contracts

- have an ETH balance
- may send ETH to any acc
- may call a public function of a contract
- may create a new contract
The only account which has associated:
- code: set of functions/ variable declarations
- contract storage: variables' values at any given time
It's the runtime env for transaction execution in Ethereum

It's a 256-bit register stack, sandboxed from the node's other files.
A Sidechain is an independent blockchain, designed to be compatible with the Ethereum blockchain.

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